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Ground State




Naïve Ground State Reagents from Cell Guidance Systems

Pluripotent mouse and human stem cells behave distinctly. This is not just an interspecies difference, but rather reflects methodology used for isolation and subsequent maintainance. Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells are said to be in a "naïve" ground state, whereas human ES cells are in a primed state (immediately ready to differentiate towards germ cell layers). These different states can be distinguished in several ways. For example, X chromosome inactivation is not present in the naïve state. There are also important differences in methylation status and transcription factor expression. Compared to primed cells, naïve ground state cells have several desirable characteristics, including ease of maintenance and genetic manipulation. This has lead to a concerted effort by several groups to develop methodology for the derivation and maintenance of naïve ground state human cells which more closely behave like mouse cells. A listing of some of the more recent papers, along with the growth factors and small molecules used  is shown below. 

Naive ground state and primed state pluripotency

Jaenisch Lab: Human embryonic stem cells with biological and epigenetic characteristics similar to those of mouse ESCs 20442331

Hanna Lab: Derivation of novel human ground state naive
pluripotent stem cells  24172903

Ruohala Baker Lab: Derivation of naïve human embryonic stem cells 24623855

Jaenisch Lab: Systematic Identification of Culture Conditions for Induction and Maintenance of Naive Human Pluripotency. 25090446

Flynn Lab: Platform for induction and maintenance of transgene-free hiPSCs resembling ground state pluripotent stem cells 24672758

Smith Lab: Resetting Transcription Factor Control Circuitry toward Ground-State Pluripotency in Human 25215486

Activin A, IL-6, LIF, BIX01294, CHIR99021, Forskolin, PD0325901, PD173074, SB431542

hLIF, TGF-B1, FGF-2, PD0325901, CHIR99021, SP600125, SB203580, Y-27632, BIRB796

hLIF, Activin A, FGF-2, PD0325901, CHIR99021, Y-27632

FGF2, Y-27632, PD0325901, CHIR99021,     SB590855, IM-12, WH-4-023

hLIF, Dorsomorphin                                    

hLIF, Go 6983, (2i inhibitors: PD0325901, CHIR99021, Thiazovivin/Y-27632)


  • Recombinant Human Activin A Protein

  • Recombinant Human FGF-2 (147) Protein

  • Recombinant Human IL-6 Protein

  • Recombinant Human LIF Protein

  • BIRB796

  • BIX01294 Trihydrochloride Hydrate

  • CHIR99021

  • Dorsomorphin Dihydrochloride

  • Forskolin

  • Go 6983

  • IM-12

  • PD0325901

  • SB203580

  • SB431542

  • SB590885

  • SP600125

  • Thiazovivin

  • WH-4-023

  • Y-27632