Mindful of the need for routine assessment of stem cell lines, Cell Guidance Systems offers a range of cytogenetics services, including karyotype G-banding analysis.
Karyotype analysis is a cytogenetic test that enables the identification of numerical and structural chromosomal abnormalities. Using conventional Giemsa staining techniques, condensed chromosomes are G-banded for observation. Chromosomes are subsequently grouped according to their size, centromere position and banding pattern, and any potential aberrations are identified.
The service results consist of a descriptive report and at least one high-quality image of a representative karyotype.
For all services, we aim to provide karyotype analysis of 20 G-banded metaphase spreads from a single cell culture sample. However, if fewer than 20 cells are found in the sample provided, as many cells as possible will be analyzed.
For complex mosaic karyotypes, fewer than 20 cells may be analyzed and additional karyogram images will be provided in the report. Please note that for cancer cells, and in any cases where very complex, unstable karyotypes are observed, the analysis consists only of a full karyotype for a single cell. If further analysis is required, additional charges will apply.
The results are returned by email within 15–17 business days for human samples and within 20–22 business days for mouse samples. Please note that lead times can be longer during busier periods. If this applies to your order, our team will keep you updated.
What is a normal karyotype report?
We are often asked what constitutes a normal report and what criteria are used by the clinical cytogeneticists. Here are some thoughts on the subject:
Every cell with a structural abnormality is reported, as we are typically searching for abnormalities associated with cell culture.
Cells with a single chromosome trisomy or monosomy would usually not be reported, as these could be found due to slide preparation (over-spreading).
10% mosaicism for structural or numerical abnormalities would be excluded when practical, in all instances.
Cell lines with multiple cells with the same, or different but related, abnormalities would be classed as cytogenetically abnormal.
The cell line would not be classed as abnormal if an abnormality was only found in a single cell.
Types of service
We provide analysis of both mouse and human cells. Other species are available on request, e.g. rat or pig.
For human and mouse samples, there are two services available:
Live cells – cells are in culture and processed at our laboratories for analysis. We can receive cells described as Biosafety Level (BSL) 1 or 2.
Fixed cells –cells already processed and fixed in the researchers’ laboratories. A complete and detailed protocol is provided.
In order to accept and process live cells classed as BSL2, we require evidence of the following:
Confirmation via PCR or equivalent test that the sample material is free of human pathogens (HBV, HCV, HIV-1, HIV-2, HTLV I/II, CMV, EBV, HSV-1, HSV-2) from a CLIA-certified lab.
Confirmation via PCR or equivalent that the sample is free of mycoplasma.
This screening is not necessary for the receipt of fixed samples.
For customers outside of Europe, only the fixed sample service is available. We do not recommend that live cells are in shipment for longer than 24 hours.
If you have any questions, please contact us by email at email@example.com. We will respond within one business day.
Please do not send any samples without notice.
Please note that we do not offer clinical services for patients.