Neutrophils and macrophages are key players in the early immune response to infection. In a recent paper, published in Science Advances, a team of researchers at Vanderbilt University have further explored neutrophil NETosis, a process whereby neutrophils initially secrete, and ultimately autolyse, to generate a sticky mesh which immobilizes the pathogen. The researchers have shown that this mesh actively enables and empowers the subsequent activity of macrophages.
Cell Guidance Systems Blog
Fetal maturation rate and birth timing are both regulated by factors including hormones, nutrients, and adipokines. Increasingly, the contribution of exosomes to the establishment of a successful pregnancy and delivery process is becoming clear. Exosomes regulate the physiology and metabolism of both the mother and the fetus by acting as messengers that carry specific biological signals between cells/tissues—generating an intimate relationship between them.
The long-term effects of disease and injury can arise from the body's efforts to regenerate damaged tissue. Scarring of the skin is one example. Internal scarring of tissue can also occur which can lead to more than superficial effects. In Covid 19 and other airway infections, pulmonary fibrosis, driven by cytokines, can have serious implications.
Free radicals, reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress, oxidation, antioxidants; these terms are used in both scientific and non-scientific contexts, though their meaning and relationships with one another often get confused. These molecules have very important biological roles. First, let’s unravel these terms.
Regenerative medicine aims to address the underlying causes of a patient’s condition to replace lost tissue and restore normal function. But the challenge for regenerative medicine of translating basic research into clinical therapies is immense.
Dr Shu discusses his recent review paper "Co-Isolation of Cytokines and Exosomes: Implications for Immunomodulation Studies". Exosomes play a vital role in intercellular communication and their immunomodulatory potential has become an important focus in cancer research. In melanoma, tumor-derived exosomes drive immunosuppression within the tumor microenvironment.
Radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBEs) describe damage to tissues that lie outside of the radiation field. Even though these tissues were not exposed to radiation, they demonstrate responses. Growing evidence supports a role for exosomes mediating these effects.
The role of exosomes in the development of autoimmune diseases is increasingly well understood. Amongst these, rheumatoid arthritis is one of the most common. It affects about 1% of women and 0.5% of men in OECD nations. Over the last decade, the potential use of exosomes for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis has become a hot topic.
An unprecedented effort led to the rapid development of vaccines and therapeutics to mitigate the impact of Covid 19. Vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are highly effective in limiting the incidence of severe disease. But with new variants emerging and patchy vaccination coverage, large numbers of people are still becoming severely affected and dying.
Why do some people age faster than others? A recent study has allowed the development of an inflammation index to determine a person’s “immunological age”. This index may be useful in healthcare assessments, and may also allow early-stage interventions, such as improved diet and exercise.