Glycosylation is the addition of glycan groups to proteins. This affects about 50% of proteins, including exosomal proteins, modulating their function. This impacts and reflects states of health and disease. As well as characterizing exosome glycosylation states for diagnostic purposes, glycosylation control strategies for therapeutic applications are in development.
Recombinant proteins provide a powerful research tool and have also transformed the treatment of many diseases. From the smallest peptide to larger proteins, such as antibodies, how proteins are delivered and reach their target is critical to their function and just as important as their activity on the target.
Major differences in cell behaviour develop when cells are cultured on petri dishes or hard material surfaces instead of their native biological environment. Biomaterials, particularly hydrogels, which can bridge this gap, are a key area of cell research.
Preserving maternal RNA transmitted by an oocyte to its progeny is an essential aspect of oogenesis, yet not much is known about how this is achieved in mammalian species. In a recent issue of Science, researchers at the Max Planck Institute in Gottingen, Germany [Cheng et al. (2022)] uncovered the MARDO, a novel structure that may help answer this longstanding question.