Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is an emerging technology that enables the fabrication of complex, biomimetic tissue constructs for applications in tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and drug testing. Hydrogels, which are hydrophilic polymeric networks capable of absorbing large amounts of water, have emerged as promising bioinks for 3D bioprinting due to their biocompatibility, tunable mechanical properties, and ability to support cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation.
In 2013, the journal Science chose cancer immunotherapy as the breakthrough of the year, largely due to the impact of checkpoint inhibitors. Interleukin-2 (IL-2), a cytokine, also played a part. In addition to IL-2, interferon-gamma (IFN-g), and interleukin-12 (IL-12) have come to prominence in recent years. However, toxicity limits their use. Can this be overcome?
The liver is the largest vital organ responsible for functions including metabolism, immunity, digestion, detoxification and endocrine regulation. Its multifaceted role, unique anatomical features and specialized blood supply - receiving blood directly from the GI tract and heart - render it an indispensable target for therapeutic interventions aimed at addressing liver diseases and improving overall health outcomes.
Inflammation is a natural biological response to tissue injury or infection, but chronic low-grade inflammation, also known as inflammaging, is a hallmark of ageing. In recent years, the relationship between cytokines, inflammation, and ageing has become established.
Liver disease is a significant health concern that affects millions of people worldwide. The liver plays a crucial role in metabolism, detoxification, and bile production, and liver disease can significantly impact liver function. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential for managing liver disease, and nanoparticles and microparticles offer promising therapeutic approaches for early-stage liver disease.