Just like people, cells can take a while to adapt to a new environment. For cells cultured in-vivo, its possible to wean cells on to new conditions. However, when cells are implanted, moving from in-vitro to in-vivo conditions, weaning isnâ€™t an option. The resultant culture shock can kill most of the transplanted cells.
3D bioprinting enables the production of cell-laden models in which cells, biomolecules and biomaterials are deposited in a spatially predefined 3D position. As 3D bioprinting capabilities become more sophisticated, the potential to fabricate functional tissues and organs for drug testing and transplantation is being realized. But with simple stem cell procedures costing $5,000 to $50,000, how many will be able to afford these innovations?
Just a decade ago, for the millions of people living with rare genetic diseases, there seemed little hope that an effective treatment could be developed. One of the main obstacles is the massive costs of drug development; for many rare genetic diseases, there aren't even enough patients to conduct a formal clinical trial. But changes to the regulatory framework and the development of gene therapy platform technologies that, once proven safe, may be rapidly turned to a wide number of disparate diseases, is offering hope.
The use of extracellular vesicles for regenerative and therapeutic applications is gaining currency. Notably, exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), have garnered attention. However, even manufacturing exosomes for relatively small-scale, preclinical and clinical activity has proved challenging. How will scalable production of vast quantities of exosomes for routine therapeutic use be achieved?
Immunomodulatory drugs, such as Immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have transformed cancer care. However, as with other cancer drugs, ICIs are associated with significant adverse events which can even be fatal. How do these occur and what is being done to reduce their severity?