The tumour microenvironment (TME) is a dynamic, highly heterogeneous structure consisting of both transformed (mutated) cells, non-transformed cells (including immune cells, stromal cells and blood vessels) and microbes. These cells are held in an extracellular matrix of proteins and other factors secreted by the cells. An increased understanding of the TME is behind many of the latest advancements in cancer therapy.
The recent emergence of genetic therapies has focussed attention on exosomes as a possible mechanism for their efficient delivery. Exosomes provide an efficient, natural mechanism for transferring RNA into cells. Exosomes are also durable, have low levels of immunogenicity and can be produced economically at scale. The biggest hurdle to the widespread adoption of exosomes as delivery vehicles is their low cargo-loading efficiency.
Cochlear implants (CIs) do not produce the same rich sound experience that can be provided by properly functioning ears. One limitation on performance is the quality of connection CIs form with auditory nerves they electrically stimulate. This connection may be improved by co-implanting iPSC-derived otic neuronal progenitor cells to help bridge the gap. A â€œneurotrophic stripâ€ containing slowly releasing growth factors that generate a growth factor gradient ensures these neurons extend in the right direction.
In order to study lipids, they must often be extracted first from tissues or cellular cultures and then quantified. There are various methods available for lipid quantification, ranging from state-of-the-art quantification using advanced technology to simpler benchtop solutions. But which technique is relevant for you?
Cell Guidance Systems is now offering a range of high-quality and well-characterized freeze-dried exosome samples from human cancer cell lines for research applications. These Instant exosomes are isolated using Exo-spin kits following a combination of precipitation and size exclusion chromatography (SEC).