In drug development, the term Trojan horse encompasses a variety of strategies to deliver drugs in a concealed, safe and efficient way to the target. The main objectives of this strategy are firstly to overcome barriers, such as the blood brain-barrier or simply the cell membrane, which shield the target (Troy) from a drug (the Greeks), secondly, to specifically attack the disease rather than the whole body and thirdly, to achieve a slow drug release over time with no sudden concentration peaks. This approach does not only sound awesome on a metaphoric level, but also makes use of some nifty biological tricks.
Exosomes are cell-secreted vesicles with a diameter between 30-150nm which contain producer cell-derived protein, lipid and nucleic acid cargoes. Exosomes complex structure, coated with various membrane-bound proteins, can permeate target cells, enabling direct cell-to-cell communication between neighbouring and distant cells. Now researchers are looking at the possibility of using exosomes derived from plants for therapeutic applications
The characterisation of exosomes via multiple, complimentary techniques is necessary as a basic step to understand the sample before any further analysis. Here we discuss how products and services from Cell Guidance Systems can help with this important task.
Exosomes play an important role in both local and systemic cellular communication, carrying most types of biomolecules (including DNAs, RNAs, proteins and lipids) between cells and tissues. The properties of exosomes may allow us to utilize them for therapeutic and clinical purposes. Cancer management is an attractive target.
A recent study published by collaborators working in Chile is the first to describe some remarkable anti-bacterial properties of exosome-like vesicles (ELVs) isolated from honeybee products including honey, royal jelly and pollen
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are microscopic hollow lipid spheres which shuttle cargo, including proteins and nucleic acids, between cells. The biological importance of EVs in normal tissue homeostasis and also disease is well established. Consequently, their clinical potential as therapeutics and diagnostics is the focus of much attention.
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), and exosomes in particular, are transitioning from academic research to biotech development and onwards towards the clinic. Close to 50 EV companies have already emerged, particularly since 2017, with growing support from investors. These companies are focusing on both therapeutic and diagnostic applications. The emerging exosome biotech companies have a surprisingly diverse set of strategies which are shaping the medical and commercial future of the nascent exosome field.
In an age of alternative facts, where anything can be denied, vaccine’s are in the sights of conspiracy theorists. The indisputable fact is that, along with improved hygiene and nutrition, vaccines are one of the most effective tools to prevent disease saving an estimated 2-3 million lives per year. Thanks to vaccines, none of us have to live in fear of many terrible diseases. Here are some of the major achievements of vaccines over the decades.
Turning a readily available commodity into a scarce one is a neat trick. Stem cell scientists have long been able to convert one cell to another. For example, turning skin cells into dopaminergic neurons which could treat Parkinson's disease. However, these new cells also need to be in the right place. Relocation from in-vitro to in-vivo is a difficult journey which kills most cells.
Cells, like people, are a product of their genes and their environment. They respond to biological cues, such as growth factors, and they also respond to physical cues, such as shear stress produced by the flow of fluids. One of the most important physical factors for cells is the softness of their niche. This is determined by the localized composition of the extracellular matrix and physical attributes of their surrounding cells. The effect of getting softness right can be critical. Softness can direct cell differentiation, or maintain plenipotentiary and enhance proliferation. Just placing pluripotent cells on a soft surface reduces or possibly eliminates the need for growth factors