Why COVID-19 pathogenesis varies so widely between different in SARS-CoV2 infected individuals has remained somewhat of a mystery. However, cytokines have served as a prognostic marker for COVID-19 disease course and outcome and their involvement is closely connected with the development of Long COVID.
Cell Guidance Systems Blog
Exosomes represent a potential sweet spot between small molecules, biologics, and cell therapies for a future as highly potent multifaceted biopharmaceuticals. Studies that are leading towards clinical applications have raised expectations that exosomes will eventually provide treatment for a wide range of orphan diseases. From basic research to clinical application, the ability to stably store exosomes whilst maintaining their unique characteristics is fundamental to their research and therapeutic development.
Exosomes and viruses have many things in common, including their size, lipid coat, and the ability to transport RNA and proteins between cells. Exosomes and viruses co-purify using techniques including size exclusion columns. Are these similarities a coincidence or is there a shared past?
Neutrophils and macrophages are key players in the early immune response to infection. In a recent paper, published in Science Advances, a team of researchers at Vanderbilt University have further explored neutrophil NETosis, a process whereby neutrophils initially secrete, and ultimately autolyse, to generate a sticky mesh which immobilizes the pathogen. The researchers have shown that this mesh actively enables and empowers the subsequent activity of macrophages.
Fetal maturation rate and birth timing are both regulated by factors including hormones, nutrients, and adipokines. Increasingly, the contribution of exosomes to the establishment of a successful pregnancy and delivery process is becoming clear. Exosomes regulate the physiology and metabolism of both the mother and the fetus by acting as messengers that carry specific biological signals between cells/tissues—generating an intimate relationship between them.
The long-term effects of disease and injury can arise from the body's efforts to regenerate damaged tissue. Scarring of the skin is one example. Internal scarring of tissue can also occur which can lead to more than superficial effects. In Covid 19 and other airway infections, pulmonary fibrosis, driven by cytokines, can have serious implications.
Free radicals, reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress, oxidation, antioxidants; these terms are used in both scientific and non-scientific contexts, though their meaning and relationships with one another often get confused. These molecules have very important biological roles. First, let’s unravel these terms.
Regenerative medicine aims to address the underlying causes of a patient’s condition to replace lost tissue and restore normal function. But the challenge for regenerative medicine of translating basic research into clinical therapies is immense.
Dr Shu discusses his recent review paper "Co-Isolation of Cytokines and Exosomes: Implications for Immunomodulation Studies". Exosomes play a vital role in intercellular communication and their immunomodulatory potential has become an important focus in cancer research. In melanoma, tumor-derived exosomes drive immunosuppression within the tumor microenvironment.
Radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBEs) describe damage to tissues that lie outside of the radiation field. Even though these tissues were not exposed to radiation, they demonstrate responses. Growing evidence supports a role for exosomes mediating these effects.