Why COVID-19 pathogenesis varies so widely between different in SARS-CoV2 infected individuals has remained somewhat of a mystery. However, cytokines have served as a prognostic marker for COVID-19 disease course and outcome and their involvement is closely connected with the development of Long COVID.
Cytokines and growth factors
The long-term effects of disease and injury can arise from the body's efforts to regenerate damaged tissue. Scarring of the skin is one example. Internal scarring of tissue can also occur which can lead to more than superficial effects. In Covid 19 and other airway infections, pulmonary fibrosis, driven by cytokines, can have serious implications.
Why do some people age faster than others? A recent study has allowed the development of an inflammation index to determine a person’s “immunological age”. This index may be useful in healthcare assessments, and may also allow early-stage interventions, such as improved diet and exercise.
Biological gradients, including ion, oxygen, and protein concentration, are constantly forming and dissipating within cells and tissues. Gradients created by the secretion or metabolism of morphogens enable complex patterning. Without these gradients, complex organisms could not develop.
Many infectious diseases, including TB and HIV are adept at forming reservoirs of disease hiding in immune cells where the virus can lay dormant hidden from immune surveillance. It has been shown that some molecules including HDAC inhibitors and some cytokines can act as latency reversing agents (LRAs) by stimulating transcriptional activity cells acting as a reservoir of infection.
Everyone is familiar with the causes (infection, irritation, injury, and others) and symptoms (swelling, heat, pain, and redness) of inflammation. But what is the process that connects the cause with symptoms of inflammation? In this article, we provide a brief overview of one of the most important processes in the human body.