Cytokines and growth factors

Pseudotime vs. actual time for genes

Pseudotime vs. actual time for genes

As well as actual, canonical time marked by ticking of a clock, time can be marked by events. Pseudotime and canonical expression time are concepts used in the study of gene expression dynamics, particularly in the context of developmental biology and single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq).

Read More

Overcoming barriers to cancer protein drug delivery

Overcoming barriers to cancer protein drug delivery

The delivery of protein drugs to metastatic tumors is fraught with obstacles that limit their efficacy. This article explores the barriers to the delivery of protein drugs to metastatic cancer and discusses strategies to overcome these challenges.

Read More

Harnessing Phagocytic Immune Cells to Breach Cancer Fortifications

Harnessing Phagocytic Immune Cells to Breach Cancer Fortifications

One of the most significant hurdles in combating metastatic cancer is the delivery of protein drugs to the affected sites. The cancer cells fortify themselves behind endothelial barriers and extracellular matrix, making it difficult for therapeutic agents to reach and destroy them. Employing phagocytic immune cells as Trojan horses to overcome these barriers has immense potential.

Read More

Top 10 cytokines and chemokines for immunotherapy of cancer

Top 10 cytokines and chemokines for immunotherapy of cancer

The efficacy of chemokines and cytokines can vary depending on the type of cancer and the individual immune response of each pateint. However, some cytokines and chemokines stand out for their promise in cancer immunotherapy based on their roles in modulating the immune response. The following is a brief summary of some of these. They are listed in rough order of their relative importance.

Read More

Cytokine decorated CAR-T cells

Cytokine decorated CAR-T cells

Adoptive T cell therapies such as CAR-T cells have proven effective in treating some leukemias but have struggled to be useful in solid tumours. A recent study reported in PNAS explores a way of easily functionalizing adoptive cells so that they become decorated with a cytokine of choice. In the melanoma mouse model tested, this approach led to significantly improved efficacy.

Read More

Granted growth factors

Granted growth factors

In recent years, there has been a surge of interest in exploring new applications of growth factors and cytokines in various fields, such as regenerative medicine, cancer therapy, and tissue engineering. Awarded grant proposals provides an insight into the ongoing development of novel applications

Read More

Cytokines and Organ Rejection

Cytokines and Organ Rejection

Organ transplantation is a life-saving procedure for patients with end-stage organ failure. However, one of the major challenges in transplantation is the immune-mediated rejection of the transplanted organ by the recipient's immune system. Cytokines, a group of small proteins secreted by immune cells, play a crucial role in the immune response and are involved in the process of organ rejection.

Read More

Better delivering cytokines for cancer therapy

Better delivering cytokines for cancer therapy

In 2013, the journal Science chose cancer immunotherapy as the breakthrough of the year, largely due to the impact of checkpoint inhibitors. Interleukin-2 (IL-2), a cytokine, also played a part. In addition to IL-2, interferon-gamma (IFN-g), and interleukin-12 (IL-12) have come to prominence in recent years. However, toxicity limits their use. Can this be overcome?

Read More

Drug-induced liver injury

Drug-induced liver injury

The liver is the largest vital organ responsible for functions including metabolism, immunity, digestion, detoxification and endocrine regulation. Its multifaceted role, unique anatomical features and specialized blood supply - receiving blood directly from the GI tract and heart - render it an indispensable target for therapeutic interventions aimed at addressing liver diseases and improving overall health outcomes.

Read More

Inflammaging: How our cytokines age us

Inflammaging: How our cytokines age us

Inflammation is a natural biological response to tissue injury or infection, but chronic low-grade inflammation, also known as inflammaging, is a hallmark of ageing. In recent years, the relationship between cytokines, inflammation, and ageing has become established.

Read More