It is said that a drug without side effects is a drug without efficacy. Could the same be true of artificial sweeteners? Are we hoping too much that the sweetness we crave can be satisfied without the normal cost in calories, cavities and surges in blood sugar levels?
Both hormones and exosomes regulate physiological processes by transmitting signals to distant cells. Although clearly distinct, these two systems interact in complex and important ways.
Look hard enough and microscopic crystals are common in animals, including humans. Naturally occurring crystals in-vivo play important roles in health as well as disease. Recombinant protein crystals are also being used, or are in development, as drug delivery systems providing therapies to treat diseases including diabetes, cancer, osteoarthritis and macular degeneration.
When proteins are used therapeutically, each protein and its target pair present unique challenges for delivery. Placing proteins in the right place (targeting) for a sufficient period (sustained delivery) to achieve efficacy requires solutions appropriate to each drug.