A recent paper exploring the use of optimized virus like particles (VLPs) to deliver base editing proteins has shown impressive levels of efficacy and, importantly, low levels of off-target activity in mouse models of therapy for brain, eye and liver disease.
In this report, we provide details on 45 companies that have emerged over the last decade to pursue exosome therapeutics and diagnostic goals. Two tables provide a quick reference for this information on investor funding and founding date. A further table provides a summary of 242 exosome-focused clinical trials.
Tissue development and homeostasis relies on the availability of spatiotemporal reference points provided by localized variations in physical and chemical parameters. These create gradients along which cells can move and be maintained. Durotaxis is a less well-known but important mechanism by which cells move along a gradient of elasticity (stiffness).
Therapeutic RNA delivery can be accomplished by a variety of viral or non-viral methods. The type of RNA structure carried by these diverse delivery methods also varies (e.g., oligonucleotides, miRNA, siRNA, lncRNA, mRNA, saRNAs). The particular delivery method used is dependent on the types of RNA and the target and is a hugely important consideration for the development of effective drugs.
GFP has given rise to a powerful and versatile molecular toolbox. Cycles of rational design and directed mutagenesis, as well as the isolation of entirely new fluorophores from different species, are continuously pushing the capabilities of fluorescent protein (FP) biosensors to photophysical and biochemical extremes.