The therapeutic effects of transplanted stem cells can be mediated by their exosomes. Since exosomes offer relative simplicity and are tolerated without the need for immunosuppressive drugs, there is increasing interest in using exosomes for therapy rather than cells. There may be advantages to using exosomes from microorganisms therapeutically too.
Naked mole rats possess many characteristics and adaptations that have made them exciting model species for the study of aging, aging-related diseases, and cancer resistance.
Tissue remodeling and homeostasis are the processes that modulate and maintain the size and shape of tissues. Phagocytosis plays an important role in these processes. A recent publication in PNAS provides evidence that a mutation that reduces the efficiency of phagocytosis may lead to abnormalities in brain development that are associated with enlarged brains seen in some instances of autism.
Exosomes are now reaching the clinic in trials for a wide variety of diseases. One of their most exciting applications is the treatment of retinal degeneration which may even be able to reverse the process of sight loss.