PODS® Human CCL4

Code Description Price Qty
PPH134-50 PODS® Human CCL4, 50 million $160.00
PPH134-250 PODS® Human CCL4, 250 million $495.00
PPH134-1000 PODS® Human CCL4, 1 billion $1,650.00
PODS® co-crystals
PODS® co-crystals

PODS® Technology

PODS® proteins are made using an insect cell expression system in which the active protein is co-expressed alongside polyhedrin carrier protein. Polyhedrin forms microcrystals within insect cells which specifically capture the active protein to form a co-crystal complex. The active protein is captured in its nascent, natively folded form with limited scope for proteolytic degradation. Consequently, excellent levels of bioactivity are observed. The PODS® co-crystals provide a sustained release mechanism and can be used to functionalize surfaces. For further details, please refer to the PODS® Technology page.

Product Description

The product contains the polyhedrin protein co-crystalized with Human CCL4. A member of the CC sub-family of chemokines, CCL4 signals via the chemokine receptor CCR5. It plays a role in inflammation by attracting natural killer cells, monocytes, dendritic cells and lymphocytes to sites of injury. CCL4 is also one of the major HIV-suppressive factors produced by CD8+ T cells. It’s ability to bind CCR5 inhibits the cellular entry of M-tropic HIV strains, which utilise CCR5 as a co-receptor, in addition to downregulating CCR5 surface expression. It is secreted by numerous other cell types including neutrophils, monocytes, B cells, fibroblasts, endothelial cells and epithelial cells. Mature human CCL4 shares 77% and 80% aa sequence identity with mouse and rat CCL4, respectively.

Usage Recommendation

PODS® co-crystals provide a depot of proteins which are steadily secreted. It has been estimated that the biological activity of 50 million PODS® co-crystals generates the same peak dose as 3.3 µg of standard recombinant protein. However, at 5 days following the start of seeding the PODS® co-crystals, there are more than 50% of these peak levels still present in the culture system. Ultimately, the amount of PODS® co-crystals that is optimal for a particular experiment should be determined empirically. Based on previous data, we suggest using 50 million PODS® co-crystals in place of 3.3 µg of standard growth factor as a starting point.

To control for cross-reactivity with cells or as a negative control, we recommend using PODS® growth factors alongside PODS® Empty crystals, as the latter do not contain or release cargo protein.

Animal-Free

This product is produced with no animal derived raw products. All processing and handling employs animal free equipment and animal free protocols.

AA Sequence

MADVAGTSNR DFRGREQRLF NSEQYNYNNS KNSRPSTSLY KKAGFMKLCV TVLSLLMLVA AFCSPALSAP MGSDPPTACC FSYTARKLPR NFVVDYYETS SLCSQPAVVF QTKRSKQVCA DPSESWVQEY VYDLELN

Alternative Names

C-C Motif Chemokine 4, Macrophage inflammatory protein-1β, MIP-1β, Immune activation protein 2 (ACT-2), Small-inducible cytokine A4, Lymphocyte activation gene 1 protein (LAG-1), SIS-gamma, Protein H400

Research Use Only

This product is for Research Use Only.

Product Details
Length

137 aa

Molecular Weight

30.8 kDa

Structure

Dimer

Source

Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cell culture

Accession Number

P13236

Endotoxin Level

<0.06 EU/ml as measured by gel clot LAL assay

Formulation

PODS® were lyophilized from a volatile solution

Reconstitution

PODS® co-crystals may be reconstituted at 200 million co-crystals/ml in sterile PBS. 20% glucose has a buoyant density closer to PODS® co-crystals and can be useful for aliquoting.

PODS® co-crystals are highly stable when stored in aqueous solution (pH range 6 - 8).

Stability and Storage

Upon receipt, store at 4°C. PODS® co-crystals are stable for at least 1 year when dry and 6 months when resuspended.

References

Fasséli Coulibaly, Elaine Chiu, Keiko Ikeda, Sascha Gutmann, Peter W. Haebel, Clemens Schulze-Briese, Hajime Mori, and Peter Metcalf. The molecular organization of cypovirus polyhedra. (2007) Nature. 446: 97-101.

Rey FA. Virology: Holed up in a natural crystal. (2007) Nature. 446: 35-37.

Mori H. Immobilization of Bioactive Growth Factors into Cubic Proteinous Microcrystals (Cypovirus Polyhedra) and Control of Cell Proliferation and Differentiation. (2010) NSTI-Nanotech. 3: 222-225.

Satoshi Abe, Hiroshi Ijiri, Hashiru Negishi, Hiroyuki Yamanaka, Katsuhito Sasaki, Kunio Hirata, Hajime Mori, and Takafumi Ueno. Design of Enzyme-Encapsulated Protein Containers by In-Vivo Crystal Engineering. (2015) Advanced Materials. 27(48): 7951-7956.